Other of the oldest mnemonics in MARKETING. AIDA describes the stepping stones to successful communication:

  • get Attention
  • hold Interest
  • arouse Desire; and
  • obtain Action




A term is taken from economics referring to the referring to the demand for products that can be substituted for each other. For example tea and coffee as drinks;  buses and trains as transport; gas and electricity as heating fuel; magazines and television as home entertainment.


Marketers looking at the competition that exists for their products must look not only at manufacturers of similar products but also at the alternate demand.




An increasingly important form of ADVERTISING. Ambient media break away from traditional channels, using unconventional locations and methods to display advertising messages. Examples include images projected on to buildings, POSTERS above urinals in public toilets, specially painted telephone boxes, and messages on train tickets and supermarkets trolleys.


The growth of ambient media has been driven by advertisers looking for SHARE OF VOICE in an increasingly crowded marketplace. It is a form of advertising designed to catch people when they are less guarded against commercial messages. With an increase in the number of poster sites in cities such as New York and London, it is seen as a way of achieving cut-through in the minds of consumers constantly bombarded with advertising messages.




The leading association of MARKETING managers and teachers in the United States. Founded in 1936 the AMA has chapters all over the country and sponsors a number of annual conferences. It also publishes several journals with a wide international circulation. The oldest. the Journal of Marketing. dates back to the end of the 19th century.




The moving bits in a television advertisement; or a rough COMMERCIAL made from a STORYBOARD.


A & P


Shorthand for the department responsible for ADVERTISING and PROMOTION in a large corporation. Also the name of a pioneering US DEPARTMENT STORE, the Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company, the original coast-to-coast SUPERMARKET.




The separate testing of individual elements of the DESIGN of a new advertisement or PACKAGING. For example, in an advertisement for Levi’s jeans the JINGLE might be tired out on an audience separately from the look of the male model wearing the jeans, or of the female model looking at the male model who is looking at the jeans, and so on. A “holistic test” tests all these elements together.



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